Relationship between vitamin D and chronic spontaneous urticaria: a systematic review.
Background: Vitamin D has been reported to be associated with many allergic diseases. There are a limited number of the studies of vitamin D supplementation in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). This study aims to study the relationship between vitamin D and CSU in terms of serum vitamin D levels, and the outcomes of vitamin D supplementation.
Methods: A literature search of electronic databases for all relevant articles published between 1966 and 2018 was performed. The systematic literature review was done following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis recommendations.
Results: Seventeen eligible studies were included. Fourteen (1321 CSU cases and 6100 controls) were concerned with serum vitamin D levels in CSU patients. Twelve studies showed statistically significant lower serum vitamin D levels in CSU patients than the controls. Vitamin D deficiency was reported more commonly for CSU patients (34.3–89.7%) than controls (0.0–68.9%) in 6 studies. Seven studies concerned with vitamin D supplementation in CSU patients showed disease improvement after high-dosages of vitamin D supplementation.
Conclusion: CSU patients had significantly lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls in most studies. However, the results did not prove causation, and the mechanisms were not clearly explained. Despite the scarcity of available studies, this systematic review showed that a high dosage of vitamin D supplementation for 4–12 weeks might help to decrease the disease activity in some CSU patients. Well-designed randomized placebo-controlled studies are needed to determine the cut-off levels of vitamin D for supplementation and treatment outcomes.