This guideline covers the management of ulcerative colitis in children, young people and adults. It aims to help professionals to provide consistent high-quality care and it highlights the importance of advice and support for people with ulcerative colitis.
Ulcerative colitis is the most common type of inflammatory bowel disease. There are around 146,000 people in the UK with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (Crohn's & Colitis UK). The cause of ulcerative colitis is unknown. It can develop at any age, but peak incidence is between the ages of 15 and 25 years, with a second, smaller peak between 55 and 65 years (although this second peak has not been universally demonstrated).
Ulcerative colitis usually affects the rectum, and a variable extent of the colon proximal to the rectum. The inflammation is continuous in extent. Inflammation of the rectum is referred to as proctitis, and inflammation of the rectum and sigmoid as proctosigmoiditis. Left-sided colitis refers to disease involving the colon distal to the splenic flexure. Extensive colitis affects the colon proximal to the splenic flexure, and includes pan-colitis, where the whole colon is involved. Symptoms of active disease or relapse include bloody diarrhoea, an urgent need to defecate and abdominal pain.
Ulcerative colitis is a lifelong disease that is associated with significant morbidity. It can also affect a person's social and psychological wellbeing, particularly if poorly controlled. Typically, it has a relapsing-remitting pattern.