Guidelines on Male Hypogonadism
Androgens play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male reproductive and sexual functions. Low levels of circulating androgens can cause disturbances in male sexual development, resulting in congenital abnormalities of the male reproductive tract. Later in life, this may cause reduced fertility, sexual dysfunction, decreased muscle formation and bone mineralisation, disturbances of fat metabolism, and cognitive dysfunction. Testosterone levels decrease as a process of ageing: signs and symptoms caused by this decline can be considered a normal part of ageing. However, low testosterone levels are also associated with several chronic diseases, and symptomatic patients may benefit from testosterone treatment. This document presents the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of male hypogonadism. This guideline aims to provide practical recommendations on how to deal with primary low testosterone and ageing-related decline in testosterone in male patients, as well as the treatment of testosterone disruption and deficiencies caused by other illnesses.