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2014 ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management

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Last updated:13th Sep 2014

These Guidelines are intended for physicians and collaborators involved in the pre-operative, operative, and post-operative care of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.
The objective is to endorse a standardized and evidence-based approach to perioperative cardiac management. The Guidelines recommend a practical, stepwise evaluation of the patient that integrates clinical risk factors and test results with the estimated stress of the planned surgical procedure. This results in an individualized cardiac risk assessment, with the opportunity of initiating medical therapy, coronary interventions, and specific surgical and anaesthetic techniques in order to optimize the patient’s perioperative condition.


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