Diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation: guidelines of the Italian Society for Haemostasis and Thrombosis (SISET).
Background: The diagnosis and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) remain extremely controversial.
Purpose: The Italian Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis commissioned a project to develop clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of DIC.
Methods: Key questions about the diagnosis and treatment of DIC were formulated by a multidisciplinary working group consisting of experts in clinical medicine and research. After a systematic review and discussion of the literature, recommendations were formulated and graded according to the supporting evidence. In the absence of evidence, evidence of low quality, or contradictory evidence, a formal consensus method was used to issue clinical recommendations.
Results and Conclusions: In suspected DIC, we suggest the use of the diagnostic scores ISTH (grade C), JMHW (grade C) or JAAM (grade D) over stand alone tests. The cornerstone of the management of DIC remains the treatment of the underlying triggering disease. We do not suggest the use of antithrombin (grade D), dermatan sulphate (grade D), gabexate (grade D), recombinant factor VIIa (grade D), activated protein C (grade D), thrombomodulin (grade B). The use of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin is not suggested except for thromboembombolic prophylaxis in patients a high risk who do not have active bleeding (grade D). In patients with severe sepsis/septic shock and DIC we suggest the use of human recombinant activated protein C (grade D). In patients with DIC and active bleeding we suggest the use of transfusion therapy (platelets, plasma, cryoprecipitate) (grade D).