Depending on the strategy of volume resuscitation, it is often further diluted. Fibrinogen is also reduced (hypofibrinogenaemia), not detectable (afibrinogenaemia) and/or non-functional (dysfibrinogenaemia) in patients with congenital fibrinogen deficiencies. Since fibrinogen deficiencies are known to be associated with an increased risk of excessive bleeding and mortality, treatment involves fibrinogen replacement. Fibrinogen replacement therapies include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), cryoprecipitate and fibrinogen concentrate (FCH), which has been shown to be at least as effective as cryoprecipitate.
Fibrinogen concentrate is at least as effective as cryoprecipitate for treating fibrinogen deficiency; however, practical and safety differences exist.
Here, we highlight clinical trial data on fibrinogen replacement therapies for different clinical settings and introduce practical considerations comparing safety, storage and speed of delivery.
Fresh frozen plasma
Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is the most commonly used source of coagulation factor replenishment. FFP is prepared by centrifugation of carefully obtained whole blood and contains fibrinogen at a variable concentration of 0.6 g/300mL unit or 2.0 g/L (range = 0.9 to 3.2g/L), as well as albumin, protein C, protein S antithrombin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (Theusinger et al., 2011; Kelley & Guzman, 2018).
Cryoprecipitate is a standard treatment in many countries to replenish fibrinogen in cases of acquired fibrinogen deficiency experienced during trauma involving excessive bleeding, PPH and surgery (Nascimento et al., 2014). Like fresh frozen plasma (FFP), standard preparation of cryoprecipitate does not involve pathogen inactivation.
Whilst cryoprecipitate is a standard treatment in the UK, USA, Australia and Canada, most European countries have withdrawn cryoprecipitate as a standard treatment due to the risk of transmitting pathogens and the availability of fibrinogen concentrate as an effective and pathogen-free alternative (Sorensen et al., 2010; Nascimento et al., 2014).
Fibrinogen concentrate (FCH)
Fibrinogen concentrate is a single-factor treatment purified from pools of human plasma and processed further into a powder that allows for easy storage and reconstitution at administration. It is approved for the treatment and prophylaxis of congenital fibrinogen deficiencies such as afibrinogenaemia and hypofibrinogenaemia in many countries including the UK, USA, Canada, Australia and many other European countries (Costa-Filho et al., 2016).
It is also approved in Brazil, Uruguay, Taiwan and some European countries such as Germany and Austria as the standard treatment for acquired fibrinogen deficiency experienced during trauma, surgery and postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) (Costa-Filho et al., 2016).
Practical considerations for fibrinogen replenishment: a comparison
Unlike FFP and cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate is a single-factor agent. Despite this, fibrinogen concentrate has been shown to be as effective as FFP and cryoprecipitate, indicating that additional coagulation factors present in FFP and cryoprecipitate are unlikely to impact on treatment outcome for most cases.
In terms of replenishment, there appears to be no additional clinical benefit of using fibrinogen concentrate over FFP or cryoprecipitate. The major differentiating factors to consider in the clinic is therefore speed of preparation, storage and safety (Table 5).
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