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FDA Drug information

Piperacillin and Tazobactam

Read time: 9 mins
Marketing start date: 05 Dec 2022

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following clinically significant adverse reactions are described elsewhere in the labeling: • Hypersensitivity Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] • Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] • Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] • Hematologic Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] • Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] • Nephrotoxicity in Critically Ill Patients [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] • Clostridioides difficile-Associated Diarrhea [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Clinical Trials in Adult Patients During the initial clinical investigations, 2,621 patients worldwide were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in phase 3 trials. In the key North American monotherapy clinical trials (n=830 patients), 90% of the adverse events reported were mild to moderate in severity and transient in nature. However, in 3.2% of the patients treated worldwide, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection was discontinued because of adverse events primarily involving the skin (1.3%), including rash and pruritus; the gastrointestinal system (0.9%), including diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting; and allergic reactions (0.5%). Table 5: Adverse Reactions from Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Monotherapy Clinical Trials System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea (11.3%) Constipation (7.7%) Nausea (6.9%) Vomiting (3.3%) Dyspepsia (3.3%) Abdominal pain (1.3%) General disorders and administration site conditions Fever (2.4%) Injection site reaction (≤1%) Rigors (≤1%) Immune system disorders Anaphylaxis (≤1%) Infections and infestations Candidiasis (1.6%) Pseudomembranous colitis (≤1%) Metabolism and nutrition disorders Hypoglycemia (≤1%) Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders Myalgia (≤1%) Arthralgia (≤1%) Nervous system disorders Headache (7.7%) System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Psychiatric disorders Insomnia (6.6%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash (4.2%, including maculopapular, bullous, and urticarial) Pruritus (3.1%) Purpura (≤1%) Vascular disorders Phlebitis (1.3%) Thrombophlebitis (≤1%) Hypotension (≤1%) Flushing (≤1%) Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders Epistaxis (≤1%) Nosocomial Pneumonia Trials Two trials of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections were conducted. In one study, 222 patients were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in a dosing regimen of 4.5 g every 6 hours in combination with an aminoglycoside and 215 patients were treated with imipenem/cilastatin (500 mg/500 mg every 6 hours) in combination with an aminoglycoside. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 402 patients, 204 (91.9%) in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 198 (92.1%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group. Twenty-five (11.0%) patients in the piperacillin/tazobactam group and 14 (6.5%) in the imipenem/cilastatin group (p > 0.05) discontinued treatment due to an adverse event. The second trial used a dosing regimen of 3.375 g given every 4 hours with an aminoglycoside. Table 6: Adverse Reactions from Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Plus Aminoglycoside Clinical Trialsa System Organ Class Adverse Reaction Blood and lymphatic system disorders Thrombocythemia (1.4%) Anemia (≤1%) Thrombocytopenia (≤1%) Eosinophilia (≤1%) Gastrointestinal disorders Diarrhea (20%) Constipation (8.4%) Nausea (5.8%) Vomiting (2.7%) Dyspepsia (1.9%) Abdominal pain (1.8%) Stomatitis (≤1%) General disorders and administration site conditions Fever (3.2%) Injection site reaction (≤1%) Infections and infestations Oral candidiasis (3.9%) Candidiasis (1.8%) Investigations BUN increased (1.8%) Blood creatinine increased (1.8%) Liver function test abnormal (1.4%) Alkaline phosphatase increased (≤1%) Aspartate aminotransferase increased (≤1%) Alanine aminotransferase increased (≤1%) Metabolism and nutrition disorders Hypoglycemia (≤1%) Hypokalemia (≤1%) Nervous system disorders Headache (4.5%) Psychiatric disorders Insomnia (4.5%) Renal and urinary disorders Renal failure (≤1%) Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders Rash (3.9%) Pruritus (3.2%) Vascular disorders Thrombophlebitis (1.3%) Hypotension (1.3%) a For adverse drug reactions that appeared in both studies the higher frequency is presented. Other Trials - Nephrotoxicity In a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial in 1,200 adult critically ill patients, piperacillin/tazobactam was found to be a risk factor for renal failure (odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.43), and associated with delayed recovery of renal function as compared to other beta-lactam antibacterial drugs 1 [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )]. Adverse Laboratory Changes (Seen During Clinical Trials) Of the trials reported, including that of nosocomial lower respiratory tract infections in which a higher dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection was used in combination with an aminoglycoside, changes in laboratory parameters include: Hematologic - decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, increases in platelet count, eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia. These patients were withdrawn from therapy; some had accompanying systemic symptoms (e.g., fever, rigors, chills) Coagulation - positive direct Coombs' test, prolonged prothrombin time, prolonged partial thromboplastin time Hepatic - transient elevations of AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin Renal - increases in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen Additional laboratory events include abnormalities in electrolytes (i.e., increases and decreases in sodium, potassium, and calcium), hyperglycemia, decreases in total protein or albumin, blood glucose decreased, gamma-glutamyltransferase increased, hypokalemia, and bleeding time prolonged. Clinical Trials in Pediatric Patients Clinical studies of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients suggest a similar safety profile to that seen in adults. In a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial of pediatric patients, 2 to 12 years of age, with intra-abdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), 273 patients were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 112.5 mg/kg given IV every 8 hours and 269 patients were treated with cefotaxime (50 mg/kg) plus metronidazole (7.5 mg/kg) every 8 hours. In this trial, treatment-emergent adverse events were reported by 146 patients, 73 (26.7%) in the piperacillin and tazobactam for injection group and 73 (27.1%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group. Six patients (2.2%) in the piperacillin and tazobactam for injection group and 5 patients (1.9%) in the cefotaxime/metronidazole group discontinued due to an adverse event. In a retrospective, cohort study, 140 pediatric patients 2 months to less than 18 years of age with nosocomial pneumonia were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and 267 patients were treated with comparators (which included ticarcillin-clavulanate, carbapenems, ceftazidime, cefepime, or ciprofloxacin). The rates of serious adverse reactions were generally similar between the piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and comparator groups, including patients aged 2 months to 9 months treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 90 mg/kg IV every 6 hours and patients older than 9 months and less than 18 years of age treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection 112.5 mg/kg IV every 6 hours. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience In addition to the adverse drug reactions identified in clinical trials in Table 6 and Table 7, the following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Hepatobiliary - hepatitis, jaundice Hematologic - hemolytic anemia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia Immune - hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock), hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) Renal - interstitial nephritis Nervous system disorders - seizures Psychiatric disorders - delirium Respiratory - eosinophilic pneumonia Skin and Appendages - erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), dermatitis exfoliative Postmarketing experience with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients suggests a similar safety profile to that seen in adults. 6.3 Additional Experience with Piperacillin The following adverse reaction has also been reported for piperacillin for injection: Skeletal -prolonged neuromuscular blockade [see Drug Interactions ( 7.5 )]. The most common adverse reactions (incidence >5%) are diarrhea, constipation, nausea, headache, and insomnia. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Piramal Critical Care at 1-888-822-8431 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Piperacillin and tazobactam is contraindicated in patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or beta-lactamase inhibitors. Patients with a history of allergic reactions to any of the penicillins, cephalosporins, or beta-lactamase inhibitors. ( 4 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is an injectable antibacterial combination product consisting of the semisynthetic antibacterial piperacillin sodium and the beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam sodium for intravenous administration. Piperacillin sodium is derived from D(-)-α-aminobenzyl-penicillin. The chemical name of piperacillin sodium is sodium (2S,5R,6R)-6-[(R)-2-(4-ethyl-2,3-dioxo-1-piperazine- carboxamido)-2-phenylacetamido]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2- carboxylate. The chemical formula is C 23 H 26 N 5 NaO 7 S and the molecular weight is 539.5. The chemical structure of piperacillin sodium is: Tazobactam sodium, a derivative of the penicillin nucleus, is a penicillanic acid sulfone. Its chemical name is sodium (2S,3S,5R)-3-methyl-7-oxo-3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-4-thia-1- azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate-4,4-dioxide. The chemical formula is C 10 H 11 N 4 NaO 5 S and the molecular weight is 322.3. The chemical structure of tazobactam sodium is: Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP, is a white to off-white sterile, powder consisting of piperacillin and tazobactam as their sodium salts packaged in glass vials. • Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 2.25 gram single-dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 gram of tazobactam. • Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 3.375 gram single-dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 gram of tazobactam. • Each piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP 4.5 gram single-dose vial contains an amount of drug sufficient for withdrawal of piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 gram of tazobactam. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, USP is a monosodium salt of piperacillin and a monosodium salt of tazobactam containing a total of 2.35 mEq (54 mg) of sodium (Na+) per gram of piperacillin in the combination product. piperacillin-structure tazobatam-structure

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.2 Dosage in Adult Patients With Indications Other Than Nosocomial Pneumonia The usual total daily dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for adult patients with indications other than nosocomial pneumonia is 3.375 g every six hours [totaling 13.5 g (12 g piperacillin/1.5 g tazobactam)], to be administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. The usual duration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection treatment is from 7 to 10 days. 2.3 Dosage in Adult Patients With Nosocomial Pneumonia Initial presumptive treatment of adult patients with nosocomial pneumonia should start with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection at a dosage of 4.5 g every six hours plus an aminoglycoside, [totaling 18 g (16 g piperacillin/2 g tazobactam)], administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. The recommended duration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection treatment for nosocomial pneumonia is 7 to 14 days. Treatment with the aminoglycoside should be continued in patients from whom P. aeruginosa is isolated. 2.4 Dosage in Adult Patients With Renal Impairment In adult patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min) and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be reduced based on the degree of renal impairment. The recommended daily dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for patients with renal impairment administered by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes is described in Table 1. Table 1: Recommended Dosage of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection in Patients with Normal Renal Function and Renal Impairment (As total grams piperacillin/tazobactam) # Creatinine clearance, mL/min All Indications (except nosocomial pneumonia) Nosocomial Pneumonia Greater than 40 mL/min 3.375 every 6 hours 4.5 every 6 hours 20-40 mL/min* 2.25 every 6 hours 3.375 every 6 hours Less than 20 mL/min* 2.25 every 8 hours 2.25 every 6 hours Hemodialysis** 2.25 every 12 hours 2.25 every 8 hours CAPD 2.25 every 12 hours 2.25 every 8 hours # Administer piperacillin and tazobactam for injection by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes. * Creatinine clearance for patients not receiving hemodialysis ** 0.75 g (0.67 g piperacillin/0.08 g tazobactam) should be administered following each hemodialysis session on hemodialysis days For patients on hemodialysis, the maximum dose is 2.25 g every twelve hours for all indications other than nosocomial pneumonia and 2.25 g every eight hours for nosocomial pneumonia. Since hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of the administered dose, an additional dose of 0.75 g piperacillin and tazobactam for injection (0.67 g piperacillin/0.08 g tazobactam) should be administered following each dialysis period on hemodialysis days. No additional dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is necessary for CAPD patients. 2.5 Dosage in Pediatric Patients With Appendicitis/Peritonitis or Nosocomial Pneumonia The recommended dosage for pediatric patients with appendicitis and/or peritonitis or nosocomial pneumonia aged 2 months of age and older, weighing up to 40 kg, and with normal renal function, is described in Table 2 [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ) ]. Table 2: Recommended Dosage of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection in Pediatric Patients 2 Months of Age and Older, Weighing Up to 40 kg, and With Normal Renal Function# Age Appendicitis and/or Peritonitis Nosocomial Pneumonia 2 months to 9 months 90 mg/kg (80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam) every 8 (eight) hours 90 mg/kg (80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam) every 6 (six) hours Older than 9 months of age 112.5 mg/kg (100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam) every 8 (eight) hours 112.5 mg/kg (100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam) every 6 (six) hours # Administer piperacillin and tazobactam for injection by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes Pediatric patients weighing over 40 kg and with normal renal function should receive the adult dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.3 )]. Dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in pediatric patients with renal impairment has not been determined. 2.6 Reconstitution and Dilution of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Reconstitution of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection for Adult Patients and Pediatric Patients Weighing over 40 kg Single-Dose Vials Reconstitute piperacillin and tazobactam for injection vials with a compatible reconstitution diluent from the list provided below. ​2.25 gram, 3.375 gram, and 4.5 gram piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be reconstituted with 10 mL, 15 mL, and 20 mL, respectively. Swirl until dissolved. After reconstitution, the single-dose vials will have a concentration of 202.5 mg per mL (180 mg per mL of piperacillin and 22.5 mg per mL of tazobactam). Compatible Reconstitution Diluents for Single-Dose Vials 0.9% sodium chloride for injection Sterile water for injection Dextrose 5% Bacteriostatic saline/parabens Bacteriostatic water/parabens Bacteriostatic saline/benzyl alcohol Bacteriostatic water/benzyl alcohol Dilution of the Reconstituted Piperacillin and Tazobactam Solution for Adult Patients and Pediatric Patients Weighing over 40 kg Reconstituted piperacillin and tazobactam for injection solution for single-dose vials should be further diluted (recommended volume per dose of 50 mL to 150 mL) in a compatible intravenous solution listed below. Administer by infusion over a period of at least 30 minutes. During the infusion it is desirable to discontinue the primary infusion solution. Compatible Intravenous Solutions for Single-Dose Vials 0.9% sodium chloride for injection Sterile water for injection (Maximum recommended volume per dose of sterile water for injection is 50 mL). Dextran 6% in saline Dextrose 5% LACTATED RINGER’S SOLUTION IS NOT COMPATIBLE WITH THIS PIPERACILLIN AND TAZOBACTAM FOR INJECTION USP Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should not be mixed with other drugs in a syringe or infusion bottle since compatibility has not been established. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not chemically stable in solutions that contain only sodium bicarbonate and solutions that significantly alter the pH. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should not be added to blood products or albumin hydrolysates. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter or discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Dilution of the Reconstituted Piperacillin and Tazobactam Solution for Pediatric Patients Weighing up to 40 kg The volume of reconstituted solution required to deliver the dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is dependent on the weight of the child [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )] . Reconstituted piperacillin and tazobactam solutions for single-dose vials should be further diluted in a compatible intravenous solution listed above. 1. Calculate patient dose as described in Table 2 above [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )] . 2. Reconstitute vial with a compatible reconstitution diluent, as listed above under the subheading “Compatible Reconstitution Diluents for Single-Dose Vials,” using the appropriate volume of diluent, as listed in table 3 below. Following the addition of the diluent, swirl the single-dose vial until the powder is completely dissolved. Table 3: Reconstitution of Single-Dose Vials and Resulting Concentration Strength per Single-Dose Vial Volume of Diluent to be Added to the Vial Concentration of the Reconstituted Product 2.25 g (2 g piperacillin /0.25 g tazobactam) 10 mL 202.5 mg/mL (180 mg/mL piperacillin/ 22.5 mg/mL tazobactam) 3.375 g (3 g piperacillin /0.375 g tazobactam) 15 mL 4.5 g (4 g piperacillin /0.5 g tazobactam) 20 mL 3. Calculate the required volume (mL) of reconstituted piperacillin and tazobactam solution based on the required dose. 4. Aseptically withdraw the required volume of reconstituted piperacillin and tazobactam solution from the single-dose vial. It should be further diluted to a final piperacillin concentration of between 20 mg/mL to 80 mg/mL (tazobactam between 2.5 mg/mL to 10 mg/mL) in a compatible intravenous solution (as listed above) in an appropriately sized syringe or IV bag. 5. Administer the diluted piperacillin and tazobactam solution by infusion over a period of at least 30 minutes (a programmable syringe or infusion pump is recommended). During the infusion it is desirable to discontinue the primary infusion solution. St ability of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Following Reconstitution and Dilution Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection reconstituted from single-dose vials is stable in glass and plastic containers (plastic syringes, I.V. bags and tubing) when used with compatible diluents. The single-dose vials should NOT be frozen after reconstitution. Single-dose vials should be used immediately after reconstitution. Discard any unused portion after storage for 24 hours at room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]), or after storage for 48 hours at refrigerated temperature (2°C to 8°C [36°F to 46°F]). Stability studies in the IV bags have demonstrated chemical stability (potency, pH of reconstituted solution and clarity of solution) for up to 24 hours at room temperature and up to one week at refrigerated temperature. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection contains no preservatives. Appropriate consideration of aseptic technique should be used. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection reconstituted from single-dose vials can be used in ambulatory intravenous infusion pumps. Stability of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection in an ambulatory intravenous infusion pump has been demonstrated for a period of 12 hours at room temperature. Each dose was reconstituted and diluted to a volume of 37.5 mL or 25 mL. One-day supply of dosing solution were aseptically transferred into the medication reservoir (IV bags or cartridge). The reservoir was fitted to a preprogrammed ambulatory intravenous infusion pump per the manufacturer's instructions. Stability of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not affected when administered using an ambulatory intravenous infusion pump. 2.8 Compatibility with Aminoglycosides Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1 ) ]. In circumstances where co-administration via Y-site is necessary, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is compatible for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion only with the following aminoglycosides under the following conditions: Table 4: Compatibility with Aminoglycosides Aminoglycoside Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Dose (grams) Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Diluent Volumea (mL) Aminoglycoside Concentration Rangeb (mg/mL) Acceptable Diluents Amikacin 2.25 3.375 4.5 50 100 150 1.75 to 7.5 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose Gentamicin 2.25 3.375 50 100 0.7 to 3.32 0.9% sodium chloride or 4.5 150 5% dextrose a Diluent volumes apply only to single vials b The concentration ranges in Table 4 are based on administration of the aminoglycoside in divided doses (10 to 15 mg/kg/day in two daily doses for amikacin and 3 to 5 mg/kg/day in three daily doses for gentamicin). Administration of amikacin or gentamicin in a single daily dose has not been evaluated. See package insert for each aminoglycoside for complete Dosage and Administration instructions. Only the concentration and diluents for amikacin or gentamicin with the dosages of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection listed above have been established as compatible for co-administration via Y-site infusion. Simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion in any manner other than listed above may result in inactivation of the aminoglycoside by piperacillin and tazobactam. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous co-administration via Y-site infusion. Compatibility of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection with other aminoglycosides has not been established. Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Adult Patients With Indications Other Than Nosocomial Pneumonia : The usual daily dosage of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for adults is 3.375 g every six hours totaling 13.5 g (12 g piperacillin/1.5 g tazobactam). ( 2.2 ) Adult Patients with Nosocomial Pneumonia : Initial presumptive treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia should start with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection at a dosage of 4.5 g every six hours plus an aminoglycoside, totaling 18 g (16 g piperacillin/2 g tazobactam). ( 2.3 ) Adult Patients with Renal Impairment : Dosage in patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min) and dialysis patients should be reduced, based on the degree of renal impairment. ( 2.4 ) Pediatric Patients by Indication and Age: See Table below ( 2.5 ) Recommended Dosage of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection for Pediatric Patients 2 months of Age and Older, Weighing up to 40 Kg and With Normal Renal Function Age Appendicitis and /or Peritonitis Nosocomial Pneumonia 2 months to 9 months 90 mg/kg (80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam) every 8 (eight) hours 90 mg/kg (80 mg piperacillin/10 mg tazobactam) every 6 (six) hours Older than 9 months 112.5 mg/kg (100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam) every 8 (eight) hours 112.5 mg/kg (100 mg piperacillin/12.5 mg tazobactam) every 6 (six) hours Administer piperacillin and tazobactam for injection by intravenous infusion over 30 minutes to both adult and pediatric patients ( 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5 ). Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately. Coadministration via Y-site can be done under certain conditions. ( 2.8 ) See the full prescribing information for the preparation and administration instructions for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection single-dose vials.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE 1.1 Intra-abdominal Infections Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated in adults and pediatric patients (2 months of age and older) for the treatment of appendicitis (complicated by rupture or abscess) and peritonitis caused by beta-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli or the following members of the Bacteroides fragilis group: B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, or B. vulgatus . 1.2 Nosocomial Pneumonia Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated in adults and pediatric patients (2 months of age and older) for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia (moderate to severe) caused by beta-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and by piperacillin/tazobactam-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Nosocomial pneumonia caused by P. aeruginosa should be treated in combination with an aminoglycoside) [see Dosage and Administration ( 2 )]. 1.3 Skin and Skin Structure Infections Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated in adults for the treatment of uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structure infections, including cellulitis, cutaneous abscesses and ischemic/diabetic foot infections caused by beta-lactamase producing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus . 1.4 Female Pelvic Infections Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated in adults for the treatment of postpartum endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease caused by beta-lactamase producing isolates of Escherichia coli . 1.5 Community-acquired Pneumonia Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is indicated in adults for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (moderate severity only) caused by beta-lactamase producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae . 1.6 Usage To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection is a combination of piperacillin, a penicillin-class antibacterial and tazobactam, a betalactamase inhibitor, indicated for the treatment of: • Intra-abdominal infections in adult and pediatric patients 2 months of age and older ( 1.1 ) • Nosocomial pneumonia in adult and pediatric patients 2 months of age and older ( 1.2 ) • Skin and skin structure infections in adults ( 1.3 ) • Female pelvic infections in adults ( 1.4 ) • Community-acquired pneumonia in adults ( 1.5 ) To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection and other antibacterial drugs, Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. ( 1.6 )

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE There have been postmarketing reports of overdose with piperacillin/tazobactam. The majority of those events experienced, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, have also been reported with the usual recommended dosages. Patients may experience neuromuscular excitability or convulsions if higher than recommended doses are given intravenously (particularly in the presence of renal failure) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 ) ]. Treatment should be supportive and symptomatic according the patient's clinical presentation. Excessive serum concentrations of either piperacillin or tazobactam may be reduced by hemodialysis. Following a single 3.375 g dose of piperacillin/tazobactam, the percentage of the piperacillin and tazobactam dose removed by hemodialysis was approximately 31% and 39%, respectively [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12 ) ].

Adverse Reactions Table

System Organ Class

Adverse Reaction

Gastrointestinal disorders

Diarrhea (11.3%)

Constipation (7.7%)

Nausea (6.9%)

Vomiting (3.3%)

Dyspepsia (3.3%)

Abdominal pain (1.3%)

General disorders and administration site conditions

Fever (2.4%)

Injection site reaction (≤1%)

Rigors (≤1%)

Immune system disorders

Anaphylaxis (≤1%)

Infections and infestations

Candidiasis (1.6%)

Pseudomembranous colitis (≤1%)

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Hypoglycemia (≤1%)

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Myalgia (≤1%) Arthralgia (≤1%)

Nervous system disorders

Headache (7.7%)

System Organ Class

Adverse Reaction

Psychiatric disorders

Insomnia (6.6%)

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash (4.2%, including maculopapular, bullous, and urticarial)

Pruritus (3.1%)

Purpura (≤1%)

Vascular disorders

Phlebitis (1.3%)

Thrombophlebitis (≤1%)

Hypotension (≤1%)

Flushing (≤1%)

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Epistaxis (≤1%)

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Aminoglycosides Piperacillin may inactivate aminoglycosides by converting them to microbiologically inert amides. In vivo inactivation When aminoglycosides are administered in conjunction with piperacillin to patients with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis, the concentrations of the aminoglycosides (especially tobramycin) may be significantly reduced and should be monitored. Sequential administration of piperacillin and tazobactam and tobramycin to patients with either normal renal function or mild to moderate renal impairment has been shown to modestly decrease serum concentrations of tobramycin but no dosage adjustment is considered necessary. In vitro inactivation Due to the in vitro inactivation of aminoglycosides by piperacillin, piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides are recommended for separate administration. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and aminoglycosides should be reconstituted, diluted, and administered separately when concomitant therapy with aminoglycosides is indicated. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not compatible with tobramycin for simultaneous Y-site infusion. [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.8 )]. 7.2 Probenecid Probenecid administered concomitantly with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection prolongs the half-life of piperacillin by 21% and that of tazobactam by 71% because probenecid inhibits tubular renal secretion of both piperacillin and tazobactam. Probenecid should not be co-administered with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection unless the benefit outweighs the risk. 7.3 Vancomycin Studies have detected an increased incidence of acute kidney injury in patients concomitantly administered piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin as compared to vancomycin alone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 ) ]. Monitor kidney function in patients concomitantly administered with piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin. No pharmacokinetic interactions have been noted between piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin. 7.4 Anticoagulants Coagulation parameters should be tested more frequently and monitored regularly during simultaneous administration of high doses of heparin, oral anticoagulants, or other drugs that may affect the blood coagulation system or the thrombocyte function [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 ) ]. 7.5 Vecuronium Piperacillin when used concomitantly with vecuronium has been implicated in the prolongation of the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium. Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection could produce the same phenomenon if given along with vecuronium. Due to their similar mechanism of action, it is expected that the neuromuscular blockade produced by any of the non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers could be prolonged in the presence of piperacillin. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade (see package insert for vecuronium bromide). 7.6 Methotrexate Limited data suggests that co-administration of methotrexate and piperacillin may reduce the clearance of methotrexate due to competition for renal secretion. The impact of tazobactam on the elimination of methotrexate has not been evaluated. If concurrent therapy is necessary, serum concentrations of methotrexate as well as the signs and symptoms of methotrexate toxicity should be frequently monitored. 7.7 Effects on Laboratory Tests There have been reports of positive test results using the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam injection who were subsequently found to be free of Aspergillus infection. Cross-reactions with non-Aspergillus polysaccharides and polyfuranoses with the Bio-Rad Laboratories Platelia Aspergillus EIA test have been reported. Therefore, positive test results in patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam should be interpreted cautiously and confirmed by other diagnostic methods. As with other penicillins, the administration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine using a copper-reduction method (CLINITEST ® ). It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions be used. • Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection administration can significantly reduce tobramycin concentrations in hemodialysis patients. Monitor tobramycin concentrations in these patients. ( 7.1 ) • Probenecid prolongs the half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam and should not be co-administered with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection unless the benefit outweighs the risk. ( 7.2 ) • Co-administration of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection with vancomycin may increase the incidence of acute kidney injury. • Monitor kidney function in patients receiving piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and vancomycin. ( 7.3 ) • Monitor coagulation parameters in patients receiving piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and heparin or oral anticoagulants. ( 7.4 ) • Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection may prolong the neuromuscular blockade of vecuronium and other non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers. Monitor for adverse reactions related to neuromuscular blockade. ( 7.5 )

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is an antibacterial drug [see Microbiology ( 12.4 ) ]. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics The pharmacodynamic parameter for piperacillin/tazobactam that is most predictive of clinical and microbiological efficacy is time above MIC. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics The mean and coefficients of variation (CV%) for the pharmacokinetic parameters of piperacillin and tazobactam after multiple intravenous doses are summarized in Table 7. Table 7: Mean (CV%) Piperacillin and Tazobactam PK Parameters Piperacillin Piperacillin/ Tazobactam Dosea C max (mcg/mL) AUC b (mcg•h/mL) CL (mL/min) V (L) T 1/2 (h) CL R (mL/min) 2.25 g 134 131 [14] 257 17.4 0.79 -- 3.375 g 242 242 [10] 207 15.1 0.84 140 4.5 g 298 322 [16] 210 15.4 0.84 -- Tazobactam Piperacillin/ Tazobactam Dosea C max (mcg/mL) AUC b (mcg•h/mL) CL (mL/min) V (L) T 1/2 (h) CL R (mL/min) 2.25 g 15 16.0 [21] 258 17.0 0.77 -- 3.375 g 24 25.0 [8] 251 14.8 0.68 166 4.5 g 34 39.8 [15] 206 14.7 0.82 -- a Piperacillin and tazobactam were given in combination, infused over 30 minutes. b Numbers in [] parentheses are coefficients of variation (CV%). C max : maximum observed concentration, AUC: Area under the curve, CL=clearance, CL R = Renal clearance V=volume of distribution, T 1/2 = elimination half-life Peak plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection are attained immediately after completion of an intravenous infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. Piperacillin plasma concentrations, following a 30-minute infusion of piperacillin and tazobactam, were similar to those attained when equivalent doses of piperacillin were administered alone. Steady-state plasma concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam were similar to those attained after the first dose due to the short half-lives of piperacillin and tazobactam. Distribution Both piperacillin and tazobactam are approximately 30% bound to plasma proteins. The protein binding of either piperacillin or tazobactam is unaffected by the presence of the other compound. Protein binding of the tazobactam metabolite is negligible. Piperacillin and tazobactam are widely distributed into tissues and body fluids including intestinal mucosa, gallbladder, lung, female reproductive tissues (uterus, ovary, and fallopian tube), interstitial fluid, and bile. Mean tissue concentrations are generally 50% to 100% of those in plasma. Distribution of piperacillin and tazobactam into cerebrospinal fluid is low in subjects with non-inflamed meninges, as with other penicillins (see Table 8). Table 8: Piperacillin/Tazobactam Concentrations in Selected Tissues and Fluids after Single 4 g/0.5 g 30-min IV Infusion of Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection Tissue or Fluid N a Sampling period b (h) Mean PIP Concentration Range (mg/L) Tissue:Plasma Range Tazo Concentration Range (mg/L) Tazo Tissue:Plasma Range Skin 35 0.5 – 4.5 34.8 – 94.2 0.60 – 1.1 4.0 – 7.7 0.49 – 0.93 Fatty Tissue 37 0.5 – 4.5 4.0 – 10.1 0.097 – 0.115 0.7 – 1.5 0.10 – 0.13 Muscle 36 0.5 – 4.5 9.4 – 23.3 0.29 – 0.18 1.4 – 2.7 0.18 – 0.30 Proximal Intestinal Mucosa 7 1.5 – 2.5 31.4 0.55 10.3 1.15 Distal Intestinal Mucosa 7 1.5 – 2.5 31.2 0.59 14.5 2.1 Appendix 22 0.5 – 2.5 26.5 – 64.1 0.43 – 0.53 9.1 – 18.6 0.80 – 1.35 a Each subject provided a single sample. b Time from the start of the infusion. Metabolism Piperacillin is metabolized to a minor microbiologically active desethyl metabolite. Tazobactam is metabolized to a single metabolite that lacks pharmacological and antibacterial activities. Excretion Following single piperacillin and tazobactam for injection doses to healthy subjects, the plasma half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 hours and was unaffected by dose or duration of infusion. Both piperacillin and tazobactam are eliminated via the kidney by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion. Piperacillin is excreted rapidly as unchanged drug with 68% of the administered dose excreted in the urine. Tazobactam and its metabolite are eliminated primarily by renal excretion with 80% of the administered dose excreted as unchanged drug and the remainder as the single metabolite. Piperacillin, tazobactam and desethyl piperacillin are also secreted into the bile. Specific Populations Renal Impairment After the administration of single doses of piperacillin/tazobactam to subjects with renal impairment, the half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases with decreasing creatinine clearance. At creatinine clearance below 20 mL/min, the increase in half-life is twofold for piperacillin and fourfold for tazobactam compared to subjects with normal renal function. Dosage adjustments for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection are recommended when creatinine clearance is below 40 mL/min in patients receiving the usual recommended daily dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection. See Dosage and Administration ( 2 ) for specific recommendations for the treatment of patients with renal-impairment. Hemodialysis removes 30% to 40% of a piperacillin/tazobactam dose with an additional 5% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. Peritoneal dialysis removes approximately 6% and 21% of the piperacillin and tazobactam doses, respectively, with up to 16% of the tazobactam dose removed as the tazobactam metabolite. For dosage recommendations for patients undergoing hemodialysis [see Dosage and Administration ( 2 ) ]. Hepatic Impairment The half-life of piperacillin and of tazobactam increases by approximately 25% and 18%, respectively, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis compared to healthy subjects. However, this difference does not warrant dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection due to hepatic cirrhosis. Pediatrics Piperacillin and tazobactam pharmacokinetics were studied in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older. The clearance of both compounds is slower in the younger patients compared to older children and adults. In a population PK analysis, estimated clearance for 9 month-old to 12 year-old patients was comparable to adults, with a population mean (SE) value of 5.64 (0.34) mL/min/kg. The piperacillin clearance estimate is 80% of this value for pediatric patients 2 to 9 months old. In patients younger than 2 months of age, clearance of piperacillin is slower compared to older children; however, it is not adequately characterized for dosing recommendations. The population mean (SE) for piperacillin distribution volume is 0.243 (0.011) L/kg and is independent of age. Geriatrics The impact of age on the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male subjects, aged 18 to 35 years (n=6) and aged 65 to 80 years (n=12). Mean half-life for piperacilln and tazobactam was 32% and 55% higher, respectively, in the elderly compared to the younger subjects. This difference may be due to age-related changes in creatinine clearance. Race The effect of race on piperacillin and tazobactam was evaluated in healthy male volunteers. No difference in piperacillin or tazobactam pharmacokinetics was observed between Asian (n=9) and Caucasian (n=9) healthy volunteers who received single 4/0.5 g doses. Drug Interactions The potential for pharmacokinetic drug interactions between piperacillin and tazobactam for injectionand aminoglycosides, probenecid, vancomycin, heparin, vecuronium, and methotrexate has been evaluated [see Drug Interactions ( 7 ) ]. 12.4 Microbiology Mechanism of Action Piperacillin sodium exerts bactericidal activity by inhibiting septum formation and cell wall synthesis of susceptible bacteria. In vitro , piperacillin is active against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Tazobactam sodium has little clinically relevant in vitro activity against bacteria due to its reduced affinity to penicillin-binding proteins. It is, however, a beta-lactamase inhibitor of the Molecular class A enzymes, including Richmond-Sykes class III (Bush class 2b & 2b') penicillinases and cephalosporinases. It varies in its ability to inhibit class II and IV (2a & 4) penicillinases. Tazobactam does not induce chromosomally-mediated beta-lactamases at tazobactam concentrations achieved with the recommended dosage regimen. Antimicrobial Activity Piperacillin/tazobactam has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage ( 1 ) ]: Aerobic bacteria Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible isolates only) Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter baumannii Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae (excluding beta-lactamase negative, ampicillin-resistant isolates) Klebsiella pneumoniae Pseudomonas aeruginosa (given in combination with an aminoglycoside to which the isolate is susceptible) Anaerobic bacteria: Bacteroides fragilis group ( B. fragilis, B. ovatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. vulgatus ) The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for piperacillin/tazobactam against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam in treating clinical infections caused by these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. Aerobic bacteria Gram-positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis (ampicillin or penicillin-susceptible isolates only) Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin susceptible isolates only) Streptococcus agalactiae† Streptococcus pneumoniae† (penicillin-susceptible isolates only) Streptococcus pyogenes† Viridans group streptococci† Gram-negative bacteria: Citrobacter koseri Moraxella catarrhalis Morganella morganii Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis Proteus vulgaris Serratia marcescens Providencia stuartii Providencia rettgeri Salmonella enterica Anaerobic bacteria: Clostridium perfringens Bacteroides distasonis Prevotella melaninogenica † These are not beta-lactamase producing bacteria and, therefore, are susceptible to piperacillin alone. Susceptibility Testing For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

Clinical Pharmacology Table

Table 7: Mean (CV%) Piperacillin and Tazobactam PK Parameters

Piperacillin

Piperacillin/ Tazobactam

Dosea

C max

(mcg/mL)

AUC b

(mcg•h/mL)

CL

(mL/min)

V

(L)

T 1/2

(h)

CL R

(mL/min)

2.25 g

134

131 [14]

257

17.4

0.79

--

3.375 g

242

242 [10]

207

15.1

0.84

140

4.5 g

298

322 [16]

210

15.4

0.84

--

Tazobactam

Piperacillin/

Tazobactam

Dosea

C max

(mcg/mL)

AUC b

(mcg•h/mL)

CL

(mL/min)

V

(L)

T 1/2

(h)

CL R

(mL/min)

2.25 g

15

16.0 [21]

258

17.0

0.77

--

3.375 g

24

25.0 [8]

251

14.8

0.68

166

4.5 g

34

39.8 [15]

206

14.7

0.82

--

Effective Time

20220908

Version

6

Dosage And Administration Table

Creatinine clearance, mL/minAll Indications (except nosocomial pneumonia)Nosocomial Pneumonia
Greater than 40 mL/min3.375 every 6 hours4.5 every 6 hours
20-40 mL/min*2.25 every 6 hours3.375 every 6 hours
Less than 20 mL/min*2.25 every 8 hours2.25 every 6 hours
Hemodialysis**2.25 every 12 hours2.25 every 8 hours
CAPD2.25 every 12 hours2.25 every 8 hours

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USP is supplied as a white to off-white powder in vials: • 2.25 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 gram of tazobactam). • 3.375 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 gram of tazobactam). • 4.5 g single-dose vial (piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 gram of tazobactam). Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USP: 2.25 gram, 3.375 gram, and 4.5 gram powder for reconstitution in single-dose vials. ( 3 )

Spl Product Data Elements

Piperacillin and Tazobactam Piperacillin and Tazobactam TAZOBACTAM SODIUM TAZOBACTAM PIPERACILLIN SODIUM PIPERACILLIN ANHYDROUS Piperacillin and Tazobactam Piperacillin and Tazobactam TAZOBACTAM SODIUM TAZOBACTAM PIPERACILLIN SODIUM PIPERACILLIN ANHYDROUS Piperacillin and Tazobactam Piperacillin and Tazobactam PIPERACILLIN SODIUM PIPERACILLIN ANHYDROUS TAZOBACTAM SODIUM TAZOBACTAM

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been conducted with piperacillin/tazobactam, piperacillin, or tazobactam. Mutagenesis Piperacillin/tazobactam was negative in microbial mutagenicity assays, the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test, a mammalian point mutation (Chinese hamster ovary cell HPRT) assay, and a mammalian cell (BALB/c-3T3) transformation assay. In vivo , piperacillin/tazobactam did not induce chromosomal aberrations in rats. Fertility Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility when piperacillin/tazobactam is administered intravenously up to a dose of 1,280/320 mg/kg piperacillin/tazobactam, which is similar to the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body-surface area (mg/m 2 ).

Application Number

ANDA212287

Brand Name

Piperacillin and Tazobactam

Generic Name

Piperacillin and Tazobactam

Product Ndc

66794-216

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

INTRAVENOUS

Package Label Principal Display Panel

pip-taz-2.25g pip-taz-3.375g pip-taz-4.5g

Recent Major Changes

Dosage and Administration ( 2 ) 8/2021 Warnings and Precautions, Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis ( 5 ) 4/2022

Recent Major Changes Table

Dosage and Administration ( 2)

8/2021

Warnings and Precautions, Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis ( 5) 4/2022

Spl Unclassified Section

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Serious Hypersensitivity Reactions Advise patients, their families, or caregivers that serious hypersensitivity reactions, including serious allergic cutaneous reactions, could occur with use of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection that require immediate treatment. Ask them about any previous hypersensitivity reactions to piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, other beta-lactams (including cephalosporins), or other allergens [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )]. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Prior to initiation of treatment with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, inform patients that excessive immune activation may occur with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and that they should report signs or symptoms such as fever, rash, or lymphadenopathy to a healthcare provider immediately [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )]. Diarrhea Advise patients, their families, or caregivers that diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterial drugs, including piperacillin and tazobactam for injection, which usually ends when the drug is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterial drugs, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the drug. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )]. Antibacterial Resistance Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by piperacillin and tazobactam for injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Pregnancy and Lactation Patients should be counseled that piperacillin and tazobactam for injection can cross the placenta in humans and is excreted in human milk [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 , 8.2 )]. Revised: June 2022 Brands listed are the trademarks of their respective owners.

References

15 ​REFERENCES 1. Jensen J-US, Hein L, Lundgren B, et al. BMJ Open 2012; 2:e000635. doi:10.1136.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Piperacillin and tazobactam cross the placenta in humans. However, there are insufficient data with piperacillin and/or tazobactam in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. No fetal structural abnormalities were observed in rats or mice when piperacillin/tazobactam was administered intravenously during organogenesis at doses 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m 2 ). However, fetotoxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was observed in developmental toxicity and peri/postnatal studies conducted in rats (intraperitoneal administration prior to mating and throughout gestation or from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21) at doses less than the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body-surface area (mg/m 2 ) [see Data]. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data In embryo-fetal development studies in mice and rats, pregnant animals received intravenous doses of piperacillin/tazobactam up to 3,000/750 mg/kg/day during the period of organogenesis. There was no evidence of teratogenicity up to the highest dose evaluated, which is 1 to 2 times and 2 to 3 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, in mice and rats respectively, based on body-surface area (mg/m 2 ). Fetal body weights were reduced in rats at maternally toxic doses at or above 500/62.5 mg/kg/day, minimally representing 0.4 times the human dose of both piperacillin and tazobactam based on body-surface area (mg/m 2 ). A fertility and general reproduction study in rats using intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam or the combination piperacillin/tazobactam prior to mating and through the end of gestation, reported a decrease in litter size in the presence of maternal toxicity at 640 mg/kg/day tazobactam (4 times the human dose of tazobactam based on body-surface area), and decreased litter size and an increase in fetuses with ossification delays and variations of ribs, concurrent with maternal toxicity at ≥640/160 mg/kg/day piperacillin/tazobactam (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area). Peri/postnatal development in rats was impaired with reduced pup weights, increased stillbirths, and increased pup mortality concurrent with maternal toxicity after intraperitoneal administration of tazobactam alone at doses ≥320 mg/kg/day (2 times the human dose based on body surface area) or of the combination piperacillin/tazobactam at doses ≥640/160 mg/kg/day (0.5 times and 1 times the human dose of piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively, based on body-surface area) from gestation day 17 through lactation day 21. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Piperacillin is excreted in human milk; tazobactam concentrations in human milk have not been studied. No information is available on the effects of piperacillin and tazobactam on the breast-fed child or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from piperacillin and tazobactam for injection or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection for intra-abdominal infections, and nosocomial pneumonia have been established in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older. Use of piperacillin and for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with intra-abdominal infections including appendicitis and/or peritonitis is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies and pharmacokinetic studies in adults and in pediatric patients. This includes a prospective, randomized, comparative, open-label clinical trial with 542 pediatric patients 2 to 12 years of age with intraabdominal infections (including appendicitis and/or peritonitis), in which 273 pediatric patients received piperacillin/tazobactam [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. Use of piperacillin and for injection in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with nosocomial pneumonia is supported by evidence from well-controlled studies in adults with nosocomial pneumonia, a simulation study performed with a population pharmacokinetic model, and a retrospective, cohort study of pediatric patients with nosocomial pneumonia in which 140 pediatric patients were treated with piperacillin and tazobactam for injection and 267 patients treated with comparators (which included ticarcillin-clavulanate, carbapenems, ceftazidime, cefepime, or ciprofloxacin) [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. The safety and effectiveness of piperacillin and for injection have not been established in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12 ) and Dosage and Administration ( 2 )]. Dosage of piperacillin and for injection in pediatric patients with renal impairment has not been determined. 8.5 Geriatric Use Patients over 65 years are not at an increased risk of developing adverse effects solely because of age. However, dosage should be adjusted in the presence of renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2 ) ]. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Piperacillin and for injection contains 54 mg (2.35 mEq) of sodium per gram of piperacillin. At the usual recommended doses, patients would receive between 648 and 864 mg/day (28.2 and 37.6 mEq) of sodium. The geriatric population may respond with a blunted natriuresis to salt loading. This may be clinically important with regard to such diseases as congestive heart failure. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Renal Impairment In patients with creatinine clearance ≤ 40 mL/min and dialysis patients (hemodialysis and CAPD), the intravenous dose of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection should be reduced to the degree of renal function impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2 ) ]. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Dosage adjustment of piperacillin and tazobactam for injection is not warranted in patients with hepatic cirrhosis [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ) ]. 8.8 Patients with Cystic Fibrosis As with other semisynthetic penicillins, piperacillin therapy has been associated with an increased incidence of fever and rash in cystic fibrosis patients. Dosage in patients with renal impairment (creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min) should be reduced to the degree of actual renal function impairment. ( 2.4 , 8.6 ) See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USP are supplied as follows: NDC Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USP Package Factor 66794-216-41 Each 2.25 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 4.69 mEq (108 mg) of sodium. 10 vials per carton 66794-217-41 Each 3.375 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 7.04 mEq (162 mg) of sodium. 10 vials per carton 66794-218-41 Each 4.5 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 9.39 mEq (216 mg) of sodium. 10 vials per carton Storage Conditions Piperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USP vials should be stored at controlled room temperature (20°C to 25°C [68°F to 77°F]) prior to reconstitution. Sterile, Nonpyrogenic, Preservative-free. The container closure is not made with natural rubber latex.

How Supplied Table

NDCPiperacillin and Tazobactam for Injection, USPPackage Factor
66794-216-41Each 2.25 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 2 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.25 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 4.69 mEq (108 mg) of sodium.10 vials per carton
66794-217-41Each 3.375 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 3 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.375 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 7.04 mEq (162 mg) of sodium.10 vials per carton
66794-218-41Each 4.5 gram vial provides piperacillin sodium equivalent to 4 grams of piperacillin and tazobactam sodium equivalent to 0.5 gram of tazobactam. Each vial contains 9.39 mEq (216 mg) of sodium.10 vials per carton

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The Learning Zones are an educational resource for healthcare professionals that provide medical information on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and burden of disease, as well as diagnostic techniques and treatment regimens.

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The drug Prescribing Information (PI), including indications, contra-indications, interactions, etc, has been developed using the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) as a source (www.fda.gov).

Medthority offers the whole library of PI documents from the FDA. Medthority will not be held liable for explicit or implicit errors, or missing data.

Drugs appearing in this section are approved by the FDA. For regions outside of the United States, this content is for informational purposes only and may not be aligned with local regulatory approvals or guidance.