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Cardiovascular Metabolism Learning Zone
Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG


Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG
Read time: 240 mins
Last updated:12th Mar 2020

Introduction to Hypertension

Discover the global impact of hypertension and the role of the renin-angiotensin system in blood pressure regulation before viewing insights from experts in the fields of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

Disease Awareness

Hypertension is a global issue, affecting around 40% of adults aged 25 and over. 

In this section, you can read an overview of the epidemiology of hypertension and discover how the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences blood pressure, its role in organ damage and the different therapeutic options that target this pathway.

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The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS)

What is the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), how does it influence blood pressure and what is its role in organ damage and disease? 

Watch the following video to review how RAS exerts its effect on the body and how the use of ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) can counter the effects of hypertension.

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Expert Opinion

What are the physiological implications of hypertension and how should it be managed? What pharmacological treatments are currently recommended and where do single-pill, fixed-dose combination therapies sit within the treatment paradigm? 

When should diuretics be used to manage hypertension, and how does real-world evidence influence our treatment decisions? International experts address these and other questions in our series of hypertension expert videos and hypertension webcasts.

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Hypertension Webcasts

What is the most effective way to manage hypertension? 

In the following Novartis-sponsored webcasts, the expert panels explore how hypertension management can be optimised before delving into the available real-world and clinical trial data.

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Hypertension Quick Facts

Less than half the people with hypertension receive treatment and only 13% of patients have their blood pressure under control. Find out the key 5 things recommended in the 2018 ESC / ESH guidelines that could make a difference to your patients. 

Watch the video below to learn how these changes have been designed to improve hypertension diagnosis and tackle the problem of poor control affecting millions of people worldwide. 

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Hypertension References


Bloch MJ. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension exceeds 1.3 billion. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016;10:753–4.

Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, et al. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics – 2013 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2013;127:143–52. 

Li W, Gu H, Teo KK, Bo J, Wang Y, Yang J, et al. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in 115 rural and urban communities involving 47 000 people from China. J Hypertens. 2016;34:39–46.

Lu J, Lu Y, Wang X, Li X, Linderman GC, Wu C, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in China: data from 1·7 million adults in a population-based screening study (China PEACE Million Persons Project). Lancet. 2017;390(10112):2549–58.

NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants. Lancet. 2017;389:37–55.

Noubiap JJ, Nansseu JR, Nyaga UF, Sime PS, Francis I, Bigna JJ. Global prevalence of resistant hypertension: a meta-analysis of data from 3.2 million patients. Heart. 2018; [Epub ahead of print]. 

Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, Pujades-Rodriguez M, Shah AD, Denaxas S, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1.25 million people. Lancet. 2014;383:1899–911.

Salem H, Hasan DM, Eameash A, El-Mageed HA, Hasan S, Ali R. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a pooled meta-analysis of 1670 studies in 71 countries with 29.5 million participants. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(11):Suppl 1819. 

World Health Organization. A global brief on Hypertension. Silent killer, global public health crisis, 2013. Available at: (accessed March 2018). 

World Health Organization. Global Status Report on Non-communicable diseases, 2014. Available at: (accessed March 2018). 

World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases fact sheet. 2017a. Available at (accessed March 2018).

Expert Opinion

Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, et al.  2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2017; [Epub ahead of print].